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America's Secret War PDF Free Download

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American place names can sound pretty confusing even to native English speakers. From Philadelphia (Greek for “loving brother”) to Chicago (Algonquian Fox for “place of the wild onion”), the map of America is an etymological hodge-podge. For a clear example, take three adjacent states in New England. Vermont is an inverted, rough translation of the French for “green mountain,” mont vert. Massachusetts is derived from the name of the Native American people who lived in the area, the Algonquian Massachusett. The word meant “at the large hill.” New Hampshire comes from a county in southern England. And why do we call a turkey turkey? Learn about the history of nation’s favorite bird, the turkey, here.

But what about America itself?

Why aren’t the continents of North and South America called “Columbusia” after Christopher Columbus? The word America comes from a lesser-known navigator and explorer, Amerigo Vespucci. Who made the decision? A cartographer.

Like Columbus, Vespucci traveled to the New World (first in 1499 and again in 1502). Unlike Columbus, Vespucci wrote about it. Vespucci’s accounts of his travels were published between 1502 and 1504 and were widely read in Europe. Columbus was also hindered because he thought he had discovered another route to Asia; he didn’t realize America was a whole new continent. Vespucci, however, realized that America was not contiguous with Asia. He was also the first to call it the New World, or Novus Mundus in Latin.

With the discovery of this “New World,” maps were being redrawn all the time. No one really knew what land was where or how big it was. Because of this confusion, maps from the 1500s are incredibly inaccurate and contradictory. (They also often feature drawings of mythical sea creatures.)

From Amerigo to America

In 1507, a German cartographer named Martin Waldseemüller was drawing a map of the world—a very serious map. He called it the Universalis Cosmographia, or Universal Cosmography. Comprised of 12 wooden panels, it was eight feet wide and four-and-a-half feet tall. He based his drawings of the New World on Vespucci’s published travelogues. All countries were seen as feminine (like her lady Liberty today), so Waldseemüller used a feminine, Latinized form of Amerigo to name the new continents “America.” Cartographers tended to copy one another’s choices, so Columbus was left off the map. The rest is history.

Today, an original of Waldseemüller’s map is permanently on display at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.

See map below for details

America's Secret War PDF Free Download

Country: United States
Long Name: United States of America
Abbreviations: US, USA
Capital: Washington DC
Time Zones: 7 (Main Country)
Total Time Zones: 12 (with dependencies)
Dial Code: +1

Time in States and Federal Districts in USA (51 States and Federal Districts Listed Below, 13 States and Federal Districts Have Multiple Time Zones)

Alabama *Wed 11:28Kentucky(eastern part, south) *Wed 12:28Ohio *Wed 12:28
Alaska(Aleutian Islands) *Wed 07:28Kentucky(western part) *Wed 11:28Oklahoma *Wed 11:28
Alaska *Wed 08:28Louisiana *Wed 11:28Oregon(east) *Wed 10:28
Arizona(northeast)Wed 09:28Maine *Wed 12:28Oregon *Wed 09:28
ArizonaWed 09:28Maryland *Wed 12:28Pennsylvania *Wed 12:28
Arkansas *Wed 11:28Massachusetts *Wed 12:28Rhode Island *Wed 12:28
California *Wed 09:28Michigan(northwest) *Wed 11:28South Carolina *Wed 12:28
Colorado *Wed 10:28Michigan *Wed 12:28South Dakota(west) *Wed 10:28
Connecticut *Wed 12:28Minnesota *Wed 11:28South Dakota *Wed 11:28
Delaware *Wed 12:28Mississippi *Wed 11:28Tennessee(east) *Wed 12:28
District of Columbia *Wed 12:28Missouri *Wed 11:28Tennessee *Wed 11:28
Florida(northwest) *Wed 11:28Montana *Wed 10:28Texas(west) *Wed 10:28
Florida *Wed 12:28Nebraska(west) *Wed 10:28Texas *Wed 11:28
Georgia *Wed 12:28Nebraska *Wed 11:28Utah *Wed 10:28
HawaiiWed 06:28Nevada *Wed 09:28Vermont *Wed 12:28
Idaho(north) *Wed 09:28New Hampshire *Wed 12:28Virginia *Wed 12:28
Idaho *Wed 10:28New Jersey *Wed 12:28Washington *Wed 09:28
Illinois *Wed 11:28New Mexico *Wed 10:28West Virginia *Wed 12:28
Indiana *Wed 12:28New York *Wed 12:28Wisconsin *Wed 11:28
Indiana(north, northwest) *Wed 11:28North Carolina *Wed 12:28Wyoming *Wed 10:28
Iowa *Wed 11:28North Dakota *Wed 11:28
Kansas *Wed 11:28North Dakota(southwest) *Wed 10:28

* Adjusted for Daylight Saving Time

America's Secret War PDF Free Download

Time in Other Locations in USA (1 Location)

Palmyra AtollWed 06:28

Time in Dependencies of USA

DependencyTypeExample CityTime
American SamoaUnincorp. unorg. territoryPago PagoWed 05:28
GuamUnincorp. org. territoryHagåtñaThu 02:28
Northern Mariana IslandsUnincorp. org. territorySaipanThu 02:28
Puerto RicoUnincorp. org. territorySan JuanWed 12:28
US Minor Outlying IslandsTerritoryMidwayWed 04:28
US Virgin IslandsUnincorp. org. territoryCharlotte AmalieWed 12:28
Wednesday, 4 August 2021

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