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The Struggle For Sea Power PDF Free Download

The struggle for sea power pdf free download free

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The Struggle For Sea Power PDF Free Download

COLONIAL CONDITIONS
The head waters of the stream of events which led to the War of 1812, between
the United States and Great Britain, must be sought far back in the history of
Europe, in the principles governing commercial, colonial, and naval policy,
accepted almost universally prior to the French Revolution. It is true that,
before that tremendous epoch was reached, a far-reaching contribution to the

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approaching change in men's ideas on most matters touching mercantile
intercourse, and the true relations of man to man, of nation to nation, had
been made by the publication, in 1776, of Adam Smith's 'Inquiry into the
Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations;' but, as is the case with most
marked advances in the realm of thought, the light thus kindled, though
finding reflection here and there among a few broader intellects, was unable to
penetrate at once the dense surface of prejudice and conservatism with which
the received maxims of generations had incrusted the general mind. Against
such obstruction even the most popular of statesmen—as the younger Pitt soon
after this became—cannot prevail at once; and, before time permitted the
British people at large to reach that wider comprehension of issues, whereby
alone radical change is made possible, there set in an era of reaction
consequent upon the French Revolution, the excesses of which involved in one
universal discredit all the more liberal ideas that were leavening the leaders of
mankind.
The two principal immediate causes of the War of 1812 were the
impressment of seamen from American merchant ships, upon the high seas, to
serve in the British Navy, and the interference with the carrying trade of the
United States by the naval power of Great Britain. For a long time this
interference was confined by the British Ministry to methods which they
thought themselves able to defend—as they did the practice of impressment—
upon the ground of rights, prescriptive and established, natural or belligerent;
although the American Government contended that in several specific
measures no such right existed,—that the action was illegal as well as
oppressive. As the war with Napoleon increased in intensity, however, the
exigencies of the struggle induced the British cabinet to formulate and enforce
against neutrals a restriction of trade which it confessed to be without sanction
in law, and justified only upon the plea of necessary retaliation, imposed by the
unwarrantable course of the French Emperor. These later proceedings, known
historically as the Orders in Council, by their enormity dwarfed all previous
causes of complaint, and with the question of impressment constituted the
vital and irreconcilable body of dissent which dragged the two states into
armed collision. Undoubtedly, other matters of difficulty arose from time to
time, and were productive of dispute; but either they were of comparatively
trivial importance, easily settled by ordinary diplomatic methods, or there was
not at bottom any vital difference as to principle, but only as to the method of
adjustment. For instance, in the flagrant and unpardonable outrage of taking
men by force from the United States frigate 'Chesapeake,' the British
Government, although permitted by the American to spin out discussion over a
period of four years, did not pretend to sustain the act itself; the act, that is, of
searching a neutral ship of war. Whatever the motive of the Ministry in
postponing redress, their pretexts turned upon points of detail, accessory to
the main transaction, or upon the subsequent course of the United States
Government, which showed conscious weakness by taking hasty

Sea Power in its Relations to the War Of 1812
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